Dr Kenny Rutherford

Scotland's Rural College

Research Interests

My main areas of research interest are in the assessment of animal pain, and the animal welfare implications of prenatal stress in farmed animals.

My current research focuses on behavioural development and the relevance of very early life (prenatal) experiences for later welfare in pigs, cattle and sheep. A recent Defra funded study also conducted a risk assessment for prenatal hazards in these species, and in poultry and farmed fish. Before that I worked on a BBSRC funded study investigating the effect of prenatal stress and tail-docking on pig welfare.

I have also worked previously on on-farm welfare assessment as part of a Defra-funded study comparing welfare measures on organic and non-organic dairy farms.

My PhD research, which was funded by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), related to whether fractal analysis of behaviour could be used to reveal alterations in the behavioural organisation of pigs and chickens under stress.

Selected Publications

  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Baxter, E. M., D’Eath R. B., Turner, S. P., Arnott, G., Roehe, R., Ask, B.,  Sandøe, P., Moustsen, V. A., Thorup, F. Edwards, S. A., Berg, P. & Lawrence, A. B. 2013. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I: Biological factors. Animal Welfare 22, 199-218
  • Baxter, E. M., Rutherford, K. M. D., Arnott, G., D’Eath R. B., Turner, S. P., Jarvis, S., Sandøe, P., Moustsen, V. A., Thorup, F., Edwards, S. A. & Lawrence, A. B. 2013. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: Management factors. Animal Welfare 22,219-238
  • Rutherford K. M. D., Donald, R. D., Arnott, G., Rooke, J. A., Dixon, L., Mettam, J., Turnbull, J. & Lawrence, A. B. 2012. Farm animal welfare: assessing risks attributable to the prenatal environment. Animal Welfare 21, 419-429
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Donald, R. D., Lawrence, A. B. & Wemelsfelder, F. 2012. Qualitative Behavioural Assessment of Emotionality in Pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 139, 218-224
  • Arnott, G., Roberts, D., Rooke, J. A., Turner, S.P., Lawrence, A.B. & Rutherford, K. M. D. 2012. BOARD INVITED REVIEW: The importance of the gestation period for welfare of calves: maternal stressors and difficult births. Journal of Animal Science 90, 5021-5034
  • Donald, R. D., Lawrence, A. B., Healy, S. D. & Rutherford, K. M. D.  2011.  Emotionality in growing pigs: is the open field a valid test? Physiology & Behavior 104, 906-913
  • Barnes, A. P., Rutherford, K. M. D., Langford, F. M. & Haskell, M. J. 2011. The effect of lameness prevalence on technical efficiency at the dairy farm level: an adjusted data envelopment analysis approach. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 5449-5457
  • Ashworth, C. J., Hogg, C. O., Hoeks, C. W. F., Donald, R. D., Duncan, W. C., Lawrence, A. B. & Rutherford, K. M. D. 2011. Pre-natal social stress and post-natal pain affect the developing pig reproductive axis. Reproduction 142, 907-914
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Langford, F. M., Jack, M. C., Sherwood, L., Lawrence, A. B. & Haskell, M. J. 2009. Lameness prevalence and risk factors in organic and non-organic dairy herds in the United Kingdom. The Veterinary Journal 180, 95-105
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Robson, S. K., Donald, R. D., Jarvis, S., Sandercock, D. A., Nolan, A. M. & Lawrence, A. B. 2009. Pre-natal stress amplifies the immediate behavioural responses to acute pain in piglets. Biology Letters 5, 452-454
  • Haskell, M. J., Langford, F. M., Jack, M. C., Sherwood, L., Lawrence, A. B. & Rutherford, K. M. D. 2009. The effect of organic status and management practices on somatic cell counts on UK dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 3775-3780
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Langford, F. M., Jack, M. C., Sherwood, L., Lawrence, A. B. & Haskell, M. J. 2008. Hock Injury Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors on Organic and Nonorganic Dairy Farms in the United Kingdom. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 2265-2274
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Haskell, M. J., Glasbey, C., & Lawrence, A. B. 2006. The responses of growing pigs to a chronic-intermittent stress treatment. Physiology & Behavior 89, 670-680
  • Rutherford, K. M. D., Haskell, M. J., Glasbey, C., Jones, R. B. & Lawrence, A. B. 2004. Fractal analysis of animal behaviour as an indicator of animal welfare. Animal Welfare, 13, S99-S103
  • Rutherford, K. M. D. 2002. Assessing pain in animals. Animal Welfare 11, 31-53